A brief history of weather observations in Melbourne

In January this year, the official Melbourne meteorological observatory shut its ventilated doors and moved up the road, from the corner of La Trobe and Victoria Streets to Olympic Park. Moving a white box and some scientific instruments might not seem like a big deal, but the 2km move marks the end of a long chapter in Melbourne’s 180-year meteorological history.

Continue reading “A brief history of weather observations in Melbourne”

The week of the flies

The amount of aerial wildlife is one of the lovely things about living in Tortosa, a regional town so close to the Delta Ebro wildlife reserve. I’m not saying I’m a twitcher, but in the immortal words of The Eels, I like…birds.

Pigeon house.
Classic pigeon house in Tortosa (pigeons MIA)

Pigeons, sparrows and swallows are ubiquitous of course, occupying the nooks and crannies in the old and abandoned buildings here. We’ve even started calling old, derelict structures ‘pigeon houses’, because they seem so at home. At sunset, swarms of swallows practise their flying acrobatics over the river, catching bugs, pulling shapes and generally having a wonderful time.

EvilSeagulls
Evil seagulls surrounded by the feathers of their latest victim

Additionally, we have regular visits from water birds that travel up the Ebro from the Delta region. There is a white egret that greets me most days on my walk to work, as well as the occasional purple heron (I think), and tern. H even saw a kingfisher once! Two giant yellow-legged seagulls rule over a broken jetty near the university. These guys seem to be pure evil – I have seen them with the bloody corpses of at least four pigeons, and last week I watched one of them eat a whole snake! Maybe not ideal neighbours but they certainly make me walk faster.

Apart from feather friends, occasionally I also spy tiny microbats flitting about near dusk, looking for dinner bugs. They are magical little mammals, about the same size as swallows, and are apparently crucial for keeping insect numbers down. Butterflies and flies also buzz about, as you would expect, and yesterday I saw my first Catalonian dragonfly.

But not all flying things are fun, and not all wildlife is welcome. This week we met another member of the flying Tortosa family: the mosca negra, or black fly. These tiny little beasties have been around since about the mid 1990s, and have been ruining vueltas and sleeping with the window open ever since.

This article has a great quote comparing the mosca negra with a mosquito:

“If the mosquito is a neurosurgeon that bites with a probe, the black fly is a butcher that scratches the skin and makes you bleed,” said Raul Escosa, member of an Ebro river environmental board.

They love hanging around the river at dusk during the warm summer months, which is a real shame because going to the river at dusk is an official pastime here. Their bites are nasty and can cause very serious reactions in some people: swelling, days and days of itching, and general annoyance. Just writing about it makes me itch!

Recently there have been some chemicals dropped over the river to reduce the number of black flies, but I don’t know what effect it will have on the population (or the water quality for that matter).

The past week has seen record temperatures in the Tortosa region (subject to data verification of course, this is a science blog). As our apartment has no air conditioning and limited circulation, we are facing a nightly decision to sleep in suffocating heat with the windows closed, or sleep in constant fear of black fly attack with the windows open.

Fortunately, we have been let in on the secret solution to these nasty little flying hatchets. Natural Honey. Yep, this unassuming moisturiser contains traces of citronella, and keeps the black flies at bay while leaving your skin supple. This combined with some citronella candles at home have kept us relatively bite-free so far, which means more sunset bird-watching for me!

Natural Honey
Natural Honey – the unassuming hero in our war on mosca negra.

The week of translation

This past week C3 had the honour of being published in the local newspaper. A half-page spread on who we are and what we do. It’s the start of a regular column for researchers at the university and for our group it was a great, if complicated opportunity for some science communication.

Why complicated? Well, the people who were most excited about the opportunity included myself and a PhD student from Hungary. We both speak and write in English but only un poco Castillano and no Catalan, the language of the publication.

It was a shame then that the instructions for submitting the article were also in Catalan. In our excitement to get started, we naturally assumed that 2.500 caràcters meant that the newspaper wanted 2,500 of our finest WORDS about regional climate change research.

The group met, and brainstormed, and my Hungarian colleague (who is a scicomm superstar in her own country BTW) got to work. It was only 5 days before the deadline (when 2000 words were ready to go) that we realised only 2,500 CHARACTERS were required! Obviously.

So the detailed, friendly essay about our centre was reduced to a neat 600 English words without too much ‘discusión‘. Great work team.

Next, the translation. This was one of the most interesting communication experiences I have been involved in. An English article written by one person whose native language is Hungarian, translated by another whose mother tongue is actually a dialect of Catalan from her home town, with special comments from an extra helper (this guy) about how to translate some English words into other English words that would make more sense in Tortosa’s own unique form of Catalan.

For example, ‘outreach’. How do you describe this simply in English? I tried for ‘public communication of science’ and we settled on the Catalan word for communication (comunicació). That was until our translating extraordinare hit upon ‘divulgació‘, which means communicating out among the community, in programs at schools and with the public. Which is outreach! I felt like I had stepped out of a science department and into a linguistics boardgame.

‘Instrumental research’ was another doozy. Now normally this would mean ‘super important research’, but in our case, we actually mean research about meteorological instruments. Google Translate did not take kindly to that.

In the end I think we are all fairly happy with the results, and no one has called us with any skeptic rants yet, so that’s good. Let’s see what happens next month.

Here is the article in all its scanned glory:

Article
The opinion page of Setmanari Ebre, a weekly local newspaper, featuring us!

It roughly translates to…

The third floor of the campus

International climate research at Terres de l’Ebre

The Centre for Climate Change (C3) (www.c3.urv.cat) is a young research institute at the Campus Terres de l’Ebre of URV. Although it is a rather small scientific community (currently with 15 members), a group of enthusiastic and committed senior and junior climate researchers work together here.

The institute is based in the Terres de L’Ebre region not only because of the stunning natural environment and landscapes, but also in order to facilitate the synergy between C3, and the nearby Observatori de l’Ebre and IRTA (El Instituto de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentarias).

C3 is focused on researching, outreaching and sharing knowledge in the fields of climate reconstruction and assessment of climate variability and climate change.

The centre is well-known internationally due to its high-quality research on recovering climate information in different countries. The data rescue and database building tasks are implemented by working in international collaborations within projects supported by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

Besides the main research line of the centre we add year by year new and interesting fields of climate science to our research profile, such as analysing extreme events (e.g. heat and cold waves or drought), paleoclimatology (i.e. reading climate information from non-direct sources from the past such as tree rings or ice cores) and instrumental research (e.g. calibrating and improving the meteorological measuring devices). We will introduce these activities in more detailed in our upcoming articles.

A couple of months ago a sky blue banner stretched over the main street of Tortosa advertising an event called International Symposium Climate-ES 2015. Well, what was that exactly for and why is it important to organise such events?

First of all it was a unique opportunity for climate scientists, experts from the industry and also from the media to gather, share their results, their experience, their expectations and even their doubts as well as to initiate collaborative solutions to tackle the regional challenges of climate change.

Secondly, the purpose of this international ‘meetup’ was also to discover the latest scientific achievements regarding the Iberian Peninsula since the last comprehensive report on global climate by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was published last year.

There were almost 100 attendees giving a talk, presenting a poster or participating in the round-table conversations during the three day symposium. The sessions covered all the hot topics of recent climate change discussions.

C3 is active in the Terres de l’Ebre. If you want to know more about our activities, our Climate studies and the Climate Change, we invite you to read our next article.

The week we drank

Just to be clear, we actually drink every week. Water, obviously, plenty of fresh orange juice, and the occasional beer or bottle of cava. But this week I finally achieved Catalan Drink Bingo, and I had to tell someone!

There are many popular tipples to taste while watching the world go by here in Catalonia. Some you may have heard of, others perhaps not. But to achieve bingo, you gotta taste them all. Get your pencils out, it’s time to play…

CATALAN DRINK BINGO

1. Cerveza

Although we are discovering more and more local craft beers (like Tortosa’s own Lo Gambusi), cerveza on tap is pretty much limited to Damm Estrella, Cuzcampo, or if you’re lucky, Barcelona’s own Moritz. Oh, or you can have Damm Lemon, which is 60% beer, 40% lemon. Beer is everywhere here – it’s probably harder NOT to have one!

cerveza
Una cervaza waits patiently for lunch in the sun
  • Average price for a canya (pot): €1.50.
  • Appropriate time to drink: all the time.

2. Vino

Spain is famous for its delicious wine, and Tortosa is very close to Terra Alta, a not-so well known wine growing region that produces some lovely shiraz blends. There is also a lot of Rioja from the northwest of Spain which is famous for its delicious tempranillo. If the wine is not so delicious, just cut it with some gaseosa (lemonade) and you have yourself a refreshing glass of tinto de verano, or summer red wine.

Vino tinto
A glass of Terra Alta vino tinto with lunch
  • Average price for a copa (glass): €2.50 (often free with lunch).
  • Appropriate time to drink: all the time. We’ve seen abuelas drinking red with breakfast.

3. Cava

Ahh cava. The bubbles that don’t need a reason to celebrate. Cava (xampany in Catalan) is Spanish champagne, produced mainly in Catalonia to the west of Barcelona. It is fantastically cheap to buy, and H is yet to find a bottle he doesn’t like.

Cava
Two glasses of delicious cava at our bar downstairs, Rosa del Vins
  • Average price for a copa: €2.50, but often you need to buy the whole bottle for €6–20.
  • Appropriate time to drink: all the time, according to those same abuelas.

4. Sangria

I always thought sangria was a bit of a tourist drink, and maybe it is, but now that summer is here you can get your sang’ on at most bars, particularly those with a terrace in the sun. You can have typical red wine sangria, made with vino tinto, some lemonade, a liqueur (often brandy), and some fruit, or a cava sangria which is similar but white and fizzy. We’ve been told that the fruits and liquids must be combined up to 24 hours before consumption for the drink to legitimately be called sangria, but are yet to test this extensively. Research continues, the things we do for science!

Sangria
Sangria in the sunshine at the seaside. Spectacular!
  • Average price for a jarra: €8–€20, depending on your vista.
  • Appropriate time to drink: when the sun is shining.

5. Vermut

In this part of the world, ‘let’s go and take a vermut’ is similar to ‘let’s go grab a drink’. It’s pretty much a verb. Before lunch or dinner, and on weekends, people head to beach bars (or chiringuitos) or any kind of bar for an aperitif. Vermouth (vermut) is having a revival at the moment, and many bars and pubs make their own version of this sweetened and herb-infused wine treat. It is served on ice, with gaseosa on request, and garnished with a slice of orange and one or two anchovy-filled olives. I’m not even kidding a little bit about the anchovies.

Vermut
A vermouth with chips in Barcelona. It tasted better than it looks, promise
  • Average price for a vaso: €3.00.
  • Appropriate time to drink: pre-lunch or dinner, Sunday morning.

6. GinTonic

Now things start to get serious. Although you can also buy all your other mixed drinks here, the gin and tonic reigns supreme as lord of the beverages. Multi-paged gin menus are standard, with garnishes ranging from standard lemon to lemon rind, strawberries, cherries, rosemary, juniper berries and pepper. And that’s just the gin half. You also need to pick your tonic, one that matches the fruity, floral or crisp nature of the gin. Served in a huge glass and prepared lovingly by even the most hardened barman, Spanish gin and tonics are in a world of their own.

GinTonic
A saffron-infused gin with tonic if you don’t mind!
  • Average price for a copa: €5–10, depending on your gin and your tonic.
  • Appropriate time to drink: At the start of the night, at the end of the night.

7. Café

So you’ve gone out, worked your way through the first six drinks on the list, and now it’s morning. You need a coffee. But which one? This excellent infographic shows you just how many different coffee variations are available in cafes and restaurants across Spain. Taking a coffee is an important part of the Spanish daily ritual, so it’s easy to drink yourself through the list, from a café solo (an expresso) to a bombón (a shot of coffee with the same amount of condensed milk). I have a cortado descafeinado de sobre (a sachet of decaf in a small cup of hot milk), pretty much a decaf magic!

cortado
A cortado with cake
  • Average price for a café: €1.50.
  • Appropriate time to drink: at the start of the day, morning tea time, afternoon tea time, before lunch, after lunch, before dinner, after dinner.

8. Horchata

Not just the name of Vampire Weekend’s first single from their second album Contra, horchata is actually a sweet milky drink made from tiger nuts (or chufas), originally from Valencia, and reserved for the summer months. The first time I drank it, I thought it tasted a bit like Clag, but now that it is warm and sunny, it tastes more like sweetened soy milk. It is traditionally served from horchaterias with fartons (hehe), long fingers of pastry covered in icing sugar.

Horchata
H hoes into a horchata in Barcelona
  • Average price for a vaso: €3.
  • Appropriate time to drink: after school or on the weekend, when it’s warm.

9. Leche Merengada

And finally, the last square on my bingo card, leche merengada. A colleague told me about this drink last month, when the ic-ecream shops in town reopened after their winter break. Leche merengada is a kind of milkshake mixed with sugar, egg, a bit of lemon zest and some cinnamon. H thought it tasted like citronella candles when we drank one on the weekend, but I loved it. Not bad as an ice-cream flavour either!

Merengada
A tasty leche merengada, complete with cinnamon on top
  • Average price for a vaso: €3.
  • Appropriate time to drink: after school, on sunny afternoons.

Best of luck with your own round of Catalan Drink Bingo. Please tell me what drinks need to be added for season two!

The week of juggling

Undertaking an international postdoc is the goal for many lucky PhD graduates. In fact, it is often seen as the only way to progress your career.

Meeting researchers from different countries, learning different methods, getting in touch with the international community and applying your Australian experience to a new area (whether that is geographically or varying your field of expertise) is important career stuff. A friend once told me that doing an international postdoc was like doing a PhD all over again, there was so much to take in. Now that I’m here, I completely agree. It’s rewarding, tiring, overwhelming and inspiring all at once.

But what about the non-career related opportunities that an international job placement holds? The chance to learn a new language, experience a different culture, eat new food and travel to exotic locations. These features are often promoted when advertising international postdoc positions, but how do you fit them in while doing well at your hard-earned job?Continue reading “The week of juggling”

The week of supervision

Supervision is one of the most important aspect of a PhD. How you make it through the woods of the doctoral canditure depends so much on the company you keep along the way.

Ideally, a supervisor should hold your hand at first, providing you sustanance (in the form of papers to read and suggestions) and support to get you started. Little by little, the supervisor should let you wander on your own, make your own mistakes and learn from your experiences, but still be there to help and provide timely advice.

By the end, you need to be able to let go, strong enough to direct yourself, and ultimately make your way out of the woods on your own.Continue reading “The week of supervision”

The week my parents were here

Yesterday we waved goodbye to our second set of Aussie visitors, my dear parentals. It’s a bit strange when you grow up, and you are supposed to be an adult, and you realise that your Mum and Dad don’t know everything, like how to order a coffee in Spanish, or the direction of the train station.

But on the other hand, it’s great fun when you grow up and realise that your parents can travel with the best of them, and that they enjoy cava (Spanish bubbles) just as much as you do.

This post could easily be a sob story about how seeing my parents made me feel more homesick than I have done so far on this adventure. Skype is one thing, but it’s sad not knowing when I will catch up with them again in person.

And I could easily write this post as a love letter to Spain in the spring: travelling with the family gave us a chance to experience warm Madrid nights, floral Valencian days and the delightful green countryside of Castile-La Mancha.

But to keep it local, here is the second edition of Things To Do in Tortosa When You Have Guests! If you remember, the first issue was full of suggestions for activities that are cheap, cheerful, and close to town.  For this round you will need a car, which you can hire here, or much more cheaply in Tarragona or Reus, if you are coming that way.

Visit the Delta

About 25 minutes out of Tortosa is the flat expanse of Delta del Ebro. Beaches, bike paths, towers, and nearly more than 7,500 hectares of ever-changing rice paddies are key features of this unique landscape. At this time of year, the rice fields are flooded and rice is being sown, making it a glorious place to spend the afternoon (the “afternoon” here being from 4pm until 8:30pm at the moment).

The real stars of the Delta, however, are the flamingos. The pink croquet mallets have even made into the Lonely Planet as a Top Site in Catalonia! Last Friday we criss-crossed the area in search of the lanky fellows, and were not disappointed.

We spied some in Llaguna de la Tancada, El Clot, and luckiest of all, a fly-over at the end of Playa del Trabucador, a small strip of beach that gives the Delta its bottom “fin” (map here). So lucky! I’m sure there are plenty of other good places for spotting as well, but we had a pretty fun time.

Flamingo_flying_V
Flying flamingos! Look at how pink they are!
Flamingos2
Flamingos dining in the foreground with Serra de Montsià in the background. I recommend zooming in on this picture for maximum flamingo-age.

Hike Els Ports

This book and this website are slowly opening up the Els Ports Nature Park for us, helping us to explore the dramatic mountain range that frames my walk to work every day. We did a couple of short walks with Mum and Dad: one through Els Estrets, an incredible gorge that is home to nesting vultures (!!) and crystal blue water, and one to La Barcina, a peak near Mont Caro, the highest point of Els Ports. We even spotted an ibex, Catalonia’s horned mountain goat!

Ibex, Catalonia's endangered mountain goat, spotted in Els Ports.
Ibex, Catalonia’s endangered mountain goat, spotted in Els Ports.
ElsPorts
Looking up at almost too impressive Els Ports.

Follow the Ebro

Further up the Ebro River from Tortosa, picturesque towns dot the green paddocks, including Miravet which is on the banks of the river and sports a very impressive castle. One of Spain’s most important defensive structures, the Miravet Castle contains both Moorish and Christian elements, and has been occupied by many different forces, including the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s.

The castle closes at 5:30pm on weekends during spring, so after a hike in the mountains and a long lunch in town, we just had enough time to appreciate the glory of the old fort. There is even a (very narrow) spiral staircase that takes you right to the top.

MiravetView
The view from the top of the Miravet Castle.

I’m know there are at least 10,000 other things to see and do in this region, and that this is just a taste. If you are a mad cyclist you could possibly explore these suggestions on your own steam, but if you are a mere mortal you most definitely need a car to get to these places. This is especially the case on the weekend when most of the public buses do not run, although perhaps that will change in summer. Thanks for the adventures mis padres!

The week we were hop ons

After five months here, it feels as though we are finally finding our feet. My job is starting to feel like mine, not something that I am pretending to do until someone catches me out (classic imposter syndrome). Our apartment seems more like home that is has before.

And we are even making friends! In the past week we’ve been lucky enough to hop on some fun adventures with kind friends and colleagues generous enough to share their part of the world with us.

Exploring with locals has been a great way to learn Spanish (and help with English), and see things that we would have definitely missed bumbling along on our own.

So here are some pictures of wonderful local things that we have been fortunate enough to see in the last week or so.

Party_time
Un-fair.

Background: my workplace. Foreground: the makings of a fair! The Ebre Fira is this weekend, and the grounds around campus are filled with carnival rides and game. In this one, I think kids can try their hands/bottoms at bull-riding.

Homemade_paella
Sea-food.

Incredible home-cooked arroz (not quite paella, but pretty close!) made by a friend from work in their incredible campo, or country house. Four kinds of seafood and freshly made stock. Did I mention it was incredible?

CastellconCastello
Castell con Castell.

A castell in front of a castello in l’Ametlla del Mar, as part of a Sant Jordi fiesta last weekend. Not captured in this photograph: the beach in the background, the gralla band playing music to build the tension as the castellers build their castell;  a BBQ area where fresh sardines were being cooked for breakfast! 1€ for a plate of salty, delicious fish, and a swing of wine.

Toll_del_vidre
I once had a love, and it was a gas…

El Toll del Vidre (Pool of Glass, I think) near Arnes, about an hour from Tortosa. Bit icy on the toes, but we will definitely be back in summer.

Sunset
Double sun.

Sunset in Tortosa after a terrific storm. The sun was actually setting behind us, but the cloud opposite caught some last rays of the day, making it look like there were two sunsets going on. Next month there will be more science on this blog, I promise…

The week of La Diada de Sant Jordi

Sant Jordi Book Cakes
Mmmmm, book cakes.

For most of this week I have felt like Harry Potter, in the last movie when he is asked about the Tale of the Three Brothers.

“You know, the tale of Sant Jordi?”, people say expectedly.

“Ummm…”

The tale, told to me several times in the past week, goes that once upon a time, a small Catalonian town was terrorised by a dragon that was killing all of the farm animals. To keep the dragon happy, the townspeople reluctantly decided to offer one person/beautiful person/ virgin every day.

One day, the King’s daughter was selected to be sacrificed. Just as she was about to be eaten by the dragon, Sant Jordi, a courageous knight, sallied forth and slayed the beast with his sword, saving the beautiful princess. Where the dragon’s blood pooled on the ground, a marvellous red rose bush grew.

Sant Jordi (or Saint George in English) is the patron saint of Catalonia, and a heap of other places as well. The four red stripes of the Catalan flag (apparently) come from the dragon’s blood-soaked claws, and the story is taught to children all around the region. La Diada de Sant Jordi on April 23 commemorates the date of his death around 300BC, and is the day of love in Catalonia, even more than Valentine’s Day.

Roses
Roses along Carrer de Sant Blai in Tortosa for La Diada De Sant Jordi.

Since the late 1920s, April 23 has also been Book Day in Catalonia (growing to officially become World Book Day in 1999), to commemorate the deaths of both Cervantes and, it turned out, Shakespeare.

Combining these two traditions, La Diada de Sant Jordi is now the day of the book and the rose all across Catalonia. Boys give their girls a rose, while girls gift a book to their fellas. Or vice versa, you know, as it’s 2015. In Barcelona and Tarragona, Las Ramblas are packed with stalls and lovers, and several people told me it is one of the most beautiful days to be in these cities.

In Tortosa, Sant Jordi was celebrated along Carrer de Sant Blai, the main pedestrian street in town. Stalls appeared overnight covered in roses and books: local books shops, schools, charities and political parties represented, selling new and second-hand books, as well as roses wrapped in Catalan colours. We could have bought yellow roses, many many picture books about Sant Jordi, and even a guide to the Dragons of Catalonia.

A book stall along Sant Blai in Tortosa
A book stall along Sant Blai in Tortosa.
Dragon book
A guide to Catalonia’s many dragons.

The weather was perfect and it was a very festive atmosphere. Perhaps not as spectacular as the book fairs in Barça, but great fun all the same. We soaked up the atmosphere with some ice-cream, and later some cava, definitely feeling the romance in the air.  I was even lucky enough to receive a rose!

In return I gave three children’s books, to help with H’s Spanish: El Patito Feo, El Libro de la Selva and La Dama y el Vagabundo. Romantic and educational. ¡Feliç Sant Jordi!

The week of our first journal club

With apologies to Tyler Durden…

The research group at C3 is a small but dedicated bunch. There are only 15 of us, working in a range of fields from climate model downscaling to data homogenisation, from temperature extremes to model downscaling. The majority are women (including our director), and we are a mixture of local and international scientists.

The range of topics and native languages sometimes makes it difficult to ask for help with those silly battles that we early career researchers face every day: how do I find these data? What type of bracket do I need to fix this line of code? When is the next public holiday? But we get by OK.

Continue reading “The week of our first journal club”